Stems are one of the important parts of a plant. The plant shoot system is made up of stems and leaves. Stems support the plant. Stems store nutrients, carbohydrates and water . Stems are a transport link to and from roots and leaves. They transport water and sugar to leaves and roots.

There are two main types of stems, herbaceous and woody. Some plants have herbaceous stems. Herbaceous stems are thin, soft, green, short-lived, and contain little or no wood. These stems also carry out photosynthesis and produce sugar for the plant. They don’t usually grow more than one meter tall. Woody stems are those ones which are not herbaceous. The epidermis protects the stem. The xylem and phloem transport tissues in the stem. In the middle of the stem is the pith which is an area for storage and supports the plant.   

Herbaceous and woody stems have primary growth. Stems grow in length  and thickness by laying down layers of cells. As active cells produce new cells at the tip of the stem, the length of the stem increases. Stems are important to plants because they have responsibilities in plant growth.                                                                                Nelson Biology 11 (page 518)

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Growth Factors

Plant Growth

Plant Growth

 Plants are very important to the environment. They need air, water, and nutrients to grow. There are growth factors that can affect them such as water, light, temperature, soil and etc.

Water is one of the factors most needed for plant growth. Most growing plants contain about 90% water. In plants, water is also needed for photosynthesis, respiration, transpiration and transportation of minerals and nutrients. Water is responsible for growth of roots and leaves.

Light also affects plants. Plants can use natural source of light or artificial. Natural light is the sun which most plants use. Artificial light would be any lighting equipments such as lamps. Too much or too little light can affect plants.

Temperature is another factor that affects plant growth. Temperature of the surrounding atmosphere and soil matter to plants.

Soil must also be good quality. It is one of  the essential factors affecting plant growth. Soil must be good because it needs to contain the nutrients plants need to grow.

Just like humans need oxygen to breathe in, plants need the carbon dioxide we breathe out. Plants are living things, so they need carbon dioxide to live and grow. Plants are very important to us.

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cross section of a leaf

cross section of a leaf

Leaves are important structures of a plant. Many leaves are green. Green leaves are main sites of photosynthesis. Photosynthesis is the process of green plants making food using sunlight. Leaves store glucose (energy). Leaves capture light energy because they contain green pigment chlorophyll. As part of photosynthesis, leaves release oxygen and take in carbon dioxide. That is the exchange of gases between humans and plants. Leaves are important because we need plants to live.

Leaves can be long or short. Leaves have flattened body which is called the blade. Nodes are points at which leaves are positioned along the stem. Internodes are the distances between nodes. Leaves contain a network of veins or vascular bundles which are of conducting and supporting tissue. On plants, leaves are connected to the stem by a leaf stalk called a petiole. The vascular tissue in the stem sends out one branch to the leaf through the petiole. The vascular tissue branches out after it gets into the leaf.

There are many types of leaves. They are different in shape, size, texture, and structure. Some types of leaves are poplar (Populus), oak (Quercus), maple (Acer), red buckeye (Aesculus), black locust (Robinia), and honey locust (Gleditsia).                                                                                          Nelson Biology 11 (pages 501-502)

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 Roots are also important to plants. Roots absorb water and minerals from the soil, support plants, and store carbohydrates. When water and minerals enter the roots, they are transported through vascular tissue up to the stem, leaves and flowers. Roots provide anchorage in the soil. Carbohydrates that are produced are stored in the roots. Roots produce hormones, which are used throughout the plant.

Roots have protective root cap at the tip which protects and lubricates the growing root. Behind the cap, there are root hairs. Root hairs increase the root’s surface area for absorption. There is a vascular cylinder in the middle of each root which contains vascular tissues, xylem and phloem, and some ground tissue. Endodermis surrounds the vascular cylinder and regulates the movement of water and minerals.

There are different types of roots. Primary root is the first main root which is developed from the seed. From the main root, another root that branches off is the secondary root. The two main types of roots are taproots and fibrous roots. The primary root does not live long and it is replaced by adventitious roots which forms a fibrous root system. Roots grow in any direction where the correct environment of air, mineral nutrients and water exists to meet the plant’s needs. Roots don’t grow in dry soil.

Nelson Biology 11 (page 512)
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Plant Growth #2

Bean in a paper towel

I wonder when Belly Bean is going to grow into a nice tall plant. Belly Bean is a little bigger, but it is not sprouting! It’s been two weeks. So I took it out of the soil and put on a paper towel, wet it, and put it in a plastic zipper bag. I am going to keep it damp in a warm place and in light so it germinates. This should help the bean to germinate quicker. Once it sprouts, then I will put it back in the soil so it grows into a plant. It is getting a little frustrating because other people’s beans are sprouting but nothing is happening to Belly Bean. Maybe I should wait a few more days and see how Belly Bean does. Hopefully in two or three days, it starts to grow. This will be one of my happiest moments.

There is nothing really to make observations about. I am just wondering about its growth. What is wrong with it? I’m going to try different methods if it still doesn’t sprout. One day my plant will grow and I will stop worrying. All I have to do for now is to give it some time.

Published in: Uncategorized on May 17, 2010 at7:23 pm Comments (0)

Plant Growth #1

plant day 1My baby bean plant was planted on May 6th, 2010. Its name is Belly Bean. Belly Bean hasn’t been doing much. It hasn’t sprouted since the day it was put in soil and watered. I’m planting this bean because it is a type of seed. Once it sprouts then this will indicate that it is growing into a plant.

Caring for plants is very important. Plants need to be watered and put in sunlight. They also need oxygen and carbon dioxide. I am going to take really good care of my plant. I am going to keep it moist until it sprouts. Once I see roots, I will put in sunlight during the day and bring it in at night time. I will keep it away from animals  and bugs because they will be eating my plant. I will also keep it away from chemicals which will affect my plant’s growth. Soil for plants should be good quality. Plants need to be in the right climate zone. I will be giving my plant the right amount of water because plants should not be given too much water. Plants need important things in order to grow just like humans.

Published in: Uncategorized on May 11, 2010 at11:57 pm Comments (1)